Ryosuke AMIYA-NAKADA, Tsuda College
The aim of the paper is to analyze the EU social and labor policy in relation to the development of the Single Market. This topic is usually discussed using the dichotomy as “neo-liberalism” against “Social Europe,” or the Common Market versus the national welfare states. To the contrary, this paper offers a new perspective to understand the political tension inherent in the EU social policy by differentiating the “social” into the individual social rights and collective rule-making. From this perspective, it is elucidated that different understandings on the role of collective rule-making is harder to reconcile with the construction of the Single Market, where the rights should be universal and beyond a specific national conception.
Junko UEDA, Kyushu University
The European Court of Justice (ECJ) has handed down a number of judgments regarding ‘golden shares’. The cases are brought against the background of liberalisation of the economy of the member states which results in the creation of privatised companies from formerly state-owned enterprises. In these cases, so-called ‘golden shares’ accompanied by special powers including the rights to limit general shareholders’ voting rights, approval rights and vetoes vested with shareholders are issued to the authority, including the relevant ministers and government officials, via the articles of association of the company under the special act of the member state, which may authorise the company to adopt such company articles, or under laws and regulations of the member state. Obviously, the purpose of the issuance is to maintain State control over the company even after its privatisation. The cases are, without exception, brought by the European Commission (Commission) against the member state. The plaintiff, the Commission, argues that the issuance of ‘golden shares’ infringes the obligations under the Treaty Establishing the European Community (EC)/ Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union
(TFEU) provisions of the defendant, the member state. The relevant provisions of the EC/TFEU are the free movement of capital or/and freedom of establishment. This article thoroughly examines the 13 relevant cases (including one joined cases) before the ECJ which have been reported or posted at the EU official website to date, the final judgments of which were made between 1999 and 2010, and reflects upon the theoretical points raised by these cases.